Lena Horne, who was the first black performer to be signed to a long-term contract by a major Hollywood studio and who went on to achieve international fame as a singer, died on Sunday night at New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell hospital in New York. She was 92 and lived in Manhattan.
Her death was announced by her son-in-law, Kevin Buckley.
Ms. Horne, who lived for a time during her early career in Pittsburgh's Hill District, might have become a major movie star, but she was born 50 years too early, and languished at MGM in the 1940s because of the color of her skin, although she was so light-skinned that, when she was a child, other black children had taunted her, accusing her of having a "white daddy."
Ms. Horne was stuffed into one "all-star" musical after another -- "Thousands Cheer" (1943), "Broadway Rhythm" (1944), "Two Girls and a Sailor" (1944), "Ziegfeld Follies" (1946), "Words and Music" (1948) -- to sing a song or two that could easily be snipped from the movie when it played in the South, where the idea of an African-American performer in anything but a subservient role in a movie with an otherwise all-white cast was unthinkable.
"The only time I ever said a word to another actor who was white was Kathryn Grayson in a little segment of 'Show Boat'" included in "Till the Clouds Roll By" (1946), a movie about the life of Jerome Kern, Ms. Horne said in an interview in 1990. In that sequence she played Julie, a mulatto forced to flee the showboat because she has married a white man.
But when MGM made "Show Boat" into a movie for the second time, in 1951, the role of Julie was given to a white actress, Ava Gardner, who did not do her own singing. (Ms. Horne was no longer under contract to MGM at the time, and according to James Gavin's Horne biography, "Stormy Weather," published last year, she was never seriously considered for the part.) And in 1947, when Ms. Horne herself married a white man -- the prominent arranger, conductor and pianist Lennie Hayton, who was for many years both her musical director and MGM's -- the marriage took place in France and was kept secret for three years.
Ms. Horne's first MGM movie was "Panama Hattie" (1942), in which she sang Cole Porter's "Just One of Those Things." Writing about that film years later, Pauline Kael called it "a sad disappointment, though Lena Horne is ravishing and when she sings you can forget the rest of the picture."
Even before she came to Hollywood, Brooks Atkinson, the drama critic for The New York Times, noticed Ms. Horne in "Lew Leslie's Blackbirds of 1939," a Broadway revue that ran for nine performances. "A radiantly beautiful sepia girl," he wrote, "who will be a winner when she has proper direction."
She had proper direction in two all-black movie musicals, both made in 1943. Lent to 20th Century Fox for "Stormy Weather," one of those show business musicals with almost no plot but lots of singing and dancing, Ms. Horne did both triumphantly, ending with the sultry, aching sadness of the title number, which would become one of her signature songs. In MGM's "Cabin in the Sky," the first film directed by Vincente Minnelli, she was the brazen, sexy handmaiden of the Devil.
In 1945 the critic and screenwriter Frank Nugent wrote in Liberty magazine that Mr. Horne was "the nation's top Negro entertainer." In addition to her MGM salary of $1,000 a week, she was earning $1,500 for every radio appearance and $6,500 a week when she played nightclubs. She was also popular with servicemen, white and black, during World War II, appearing more than a dozen times on the Army radio program "Command Performance."
"The whole thing that made me a star was the war," Ms. Horne said in the 1990 interview. "Of course the black guys couldn't put Betty Grable's picture in their footlockers. But they could put mine."
Touring Army camps for the USO, Ms. Horne was outspoken in her criticism of the way black soldiers were treated. "So the USO got mad," she recalled. "And they said, 'You're not going to be allowed to go anyplace anymore under our auspices.' So from then on I was labeled a bad little Red girl."
Although absent from the screen, she found success in nightclubs and on records. "Lena Horne at the Waldorf-Astoria," recorded during a well-received eight-week run in 1957, reached the Top 10 and became the best-selling album by a female singer in RCA Victor's history.
In the early 1960s Ms. Horne, always outspoken on the subject of civil rights, became increasingly active, participating in numerous marches and protests.
She continued to record prolifically well into the 1990s, for RCA and other labels, notably United Artists and Blue Note. And she conquered Broadway in 1981 with a one-woman show, "Lena Horne: The Lady and Her Music," which ran for 14 months and won both rave reviews and a Tony Award.
Ms. Horne's voice was not particularly powerful, but it was extremely expressive. She reached her listeners emotionally by acting as well as singing the romantic standards like "The Man I Love" and "Moon River" that dominated her repertory. The person she always credited as her main influence was not another singer but a pianist and composer, Duke Ellington's longtime associate Billy Strayhorn.
Lena Calhoun Horne was born in Brooklyn on June 30, 1917.
At 19, Ms. Horne married the first man she had ever dated, 28-year-old Louis Jones, and became a conventional middle-class Pittsburgh wife. Her daughter Gail was born in 1937 and a son, Teddy, in 1940. The marriage ended soon afterward. Ms. Horne kept Gail, but Jones refused to give up Teddy, although he did allow the boy long visits with his mother.
Horne is survived by her daughter, Gail Lumet Buckley. Her husband died in 1971; her son died of kidney failure the same year.