• Karen Norris' lab discovers that immunocompromised monkeys with natural antibodies to a pneumocystis protein called kexin were protected from infection. Jay Kolls arrives at the University of Pittsburgh from Louisiana State University and assumes pediatrics professorship at UPMC Children's for the next five years.
• Dr. Kolls begins four-year service as member of Heather Kling's dissertation committee.
• Dr. Kolls returns to LSU for next three years, but continues to serve on Dr. Kling's doctoral committee.
• Dr. Kolls seeks a P01 research grant, citing research from the Norris lab. He also submits a federal STTR small business grant application for MiniVax that also cites material from the Norris lab.
• September: Dr. Kolls returns to Pittsburgh to head the Richard King Mellon Foundation Institute for Pediatric Research at Children's, funded with a $23 million grant. On Sept. 20, in a letter to Jerome Rosenberg, Pitt research integrity officer, Dr. Norris cites specific allegations of misconduct regarding Dr. Kolls' use of her research in both grant applications and a patent application for a pneumocystis vaccine.
• November: On Nov. 17, Mr. Rosenberg writes a letter to Dr. Norris saying that Arthur Levine, Pitt senior vice chancellor for the health sciences, had found Dr. Kolls guilty of research misconduct. The letter lays out specific remedial steps Dr. Kolls is to take.
• February: Dr. Norris contacts Pitt licensing officer Michelle Booden to complain about misuse of the research in Dr. Kolls' patent application for a pneumocystis vaccine.
• May: MiniVax, a vaccine company started by Dr. Kolls, files an application for renewal of federal funds that still lists Dr. Kolls as being involved with the company.
• July: Ms. Booden conducts a patent analysis along with LSU patent attorney John Runnels. In conference calls, Dr. Norris and Dr. Kling reiterate charges their research was used by Dr. Kolls to seek a patent; Dr. Kolls denies their work was used. Dr. Norris sends a letter to Mr. Rosenberg on July 29 with new complaints about fraud in Kolls' patent application and business startup.
• November: Dr. Norris writes a letter to the University Senate Committee on Tenure and Academic Freedom, seeking an investigation into apparent departures by Pitt from university policy in handling her misconduct complaints.
• March: The Tenure and Academic Freedom Committee writes a letter to Dr. Norris citing several shortcomings of Pitt's research integrity office in its investigation of her complaints, and notes that a separate inquiry committee to look into Dr. Kolls' actions had been established.
• April: Dr. Norris writes a letter to Pitt Provost Patricia Beeson asking for her action on the investigation.