CAIRO -- Egypt's new military-led government took further steps on Wednesday to cripple the Muslim Brotherhood in the week since the country's Islamist president was deposed and detained, issuing formal arrest warrants for the group's top spiritual leader and at least nine other senior figures accused of inciting deadly protests.
The general prosecutor's office said Mohamed Badie, the Muslim Brotherhood's supreme guide, along with top officials in the group's Freedom and Justice Party and allied Islamist political parties, were wanted for "planning, inciting and aiding criminal acts" outside the Republican Guard headquarters in Cairo where Mohamed Morsi, the ousted president, was believed to be held in military custody.
Soldiers and police officers killed at least 51 people and wounded hundreds early Monday near the headquarters, most of them unarmed demonstrators who had been demanding the release and reinstatement of Mr. Morsi, the first freely elected president in Egypt. The military said armed protesters instigated the violence, the deadliest since the 2011 Egyptian revolution, which overthrew Mr. Morsi's autocratic predecessor, Hosni Mubarak.
The Muslim Brotherhood and its affiliates have called Mr. Morsi's ouster a military coup that has reinvigorated the security apparatus of the Mubarak era. They have rejected as lies the military's claims that it wants to return quickly to full civilian control and create an inclusive government.
Prosecutors said Wednesday that they had also ordered 200 people held in custody for at least 15 days pending further investigation into their suspected role in Monday's mayhem and released 446 others on bail, according to Ahram Online, the Web site of Egypt's leading newspaper.
At the same time, the new interim government appeared to be gaining more credibility -- and generous offers of financial aid -- from its autocratic Arab neighbors in the Persian Gulf who were happy to see the Muslim Brotherhood's political ascendance blunted in Egypt. Kuwait announced it would provide an aid package worth $4 billion, adding to the $8 billion in grants, loans and fuel promised on Tuesday by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
The donations are needed urgently because the turmoil surrounding Mr. Morsi's overthrow has pushed the teetering Egyptian economy closer to the brink of collapse.
The United States also sent further signals of cautious approval, even as some members of Congress question whether American aid should be cut to Egypt's military for its role in ousting Mr. Morsi. Pentagon officials said Wednesday that the administration would proceed with sending four F-16 warplanes to Egypt this summer under a 2009 commitment to deliver 20 of the aircraft during 2013. An initial batch was sent in January.
Egypt receives about $1.5 billion annually in American military and economic assistance, but the Obama administration would be required to halt that assistance if it determined that the Egyptian military had participated in a coup against a democratically elected government. Administration officials have carefully refrained from that label, but have said they are watching the actions of the Egyptian military during the chaotic transition to new political leadership.
Pentagon officials said Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and his Egyptian counterpart, Gen. Abdul-Fattah el-Sisi, have spoken by telephone eight times since the political crisis began.
Although the interim government enlisted internationally recognized figures to serve as its public face and promised swift elections, the transitional plan it introduced on Tuesday was widely criticized inside Egypt as muddled, authoritarian and rushed.
The so-called road map, in the form of a "constitutional declaration" by the military-appointed president, elicited immediate opposition from civilian leaders across the political spectrum, including the liberals and activists who had sought the ouster of President Morsi, the faction of ultraconservative Islamists who joined them and the many thousands protesting to demand his reinstatement.
The declaration, however, made clear that the government drew its authority only from General Sisi, the military commander who executed the takeover. The interim president, Adli Mansour, a senior judge, cited the general's brief statement as the basis of his own authority, and in confirmation the general's words were printed as law in the official Gazette.
"It is now officially a coup," Nathan Brown, a political scientist specializing in Egyptian law at George Washington University, wrote in assessing the text.
The signs of a widening crackdown on the Brotherhood and its affiliates intensified on Tuesday, when Brotherhood officials said that they had lost contact with about 250 members of their leadership, in addition to the dozens -- including Mr. Morsi -- known to be detained.
In the first official word about Mr. Morsi's circumstances in custody, the caretaker foreign minister, Mohamed Kamel Amr, said on Tuesday in an interview on CNN that he was "not free to go around, but he is treated very well." Mr. Amr said he did not know Mr. Morsi's precise whereabouts but defended the military's response to the protests outside the Republican Guard headquarters on Monday. "I do not believe that the military personnel opened fire at peaceful demonstrators," he said.
The interim government's new appointments, including a liberal economist as prime minister and the diplomat Mohamed ElBaradei as a vice president for foreign relations, appeared intended to reassure the Western allies and donors Egypt must depend on.
The new prime minister, Hazem el-Beblawi, is a prominent economist who served as finance minister under an earlier interim government. A founding member of the Social Democratic Party, he has criticized Mr. Mubarak and Mr. Morsi as failing to move fast enough to open up the economy, reform Egypt's bloated and unaffordable subsidy programs and provide for the poor.
Mr. Beblawi, 77, is ideally suited to negotiate with the International Monetary Fund over a package of changes tied to a pending $4.8 billion loan, a deal that seemed out of reach after Mr. Morsi's ouster but is still considered essential to save the economy. With a Ph.D. from the Sorbonne, Mr. Beblawi has written three books on Middle East economics, worked as a senior official of the United Nations and advised the Arab Monetary Fund. He resigned after four months as finance minister under the previous military-led transitional government -- following Mr. Mubarak's ouster -- after soldiers shot dozens of mostly Coptic Christian demonstrators and the generals blamed them for scaring their troops.
Before the current crackdown, Mr. Beblawi had also welcomed the overthrow of Mr. Mubarak as providing an opportunity for Islamists to enter the democratic process. "The positive thing that resulted from this was that it gave a chance for the Muslim Brotherhood and political Islam, which have always been persecuted and wrongfully treated for a long time," he said in an interview published last month in an English language-newspaper here.
Mr. ElBaradei, who won a Nobel Prize for his work with the United Nations' nuclear watchdog, was the new government's first choice for prime minister. But his appointment was opposed by the ultraconservative Islamist Al Nour party, which had agreed to back Mr. Morsi's ouster. After Mr. ElBaradei's rejection -- while he was on his way to his swearing-in, the Islamist party's leader said -- the government cycled through two other candidates before persuading Mr. Beblawi to take the job.
The new "constitutional declaration" laid out an election schedule that analysts called implausibly speedy. The plan calls for a panel of 10 jurists -- six judges and four law professors -- to present a sweeping package of amendments in just one month. A group of 50 representatives of various government institutions, parties, guilds and social groups -- including 10 who are either women or young -- will then review the text for two months. But it is not clear what power they have to make changes or how they will make their decisions. A national referendum on the charter is set for a month after that, with parliamentary elections within the next month.
Analysts faulted the plan as repeating and even compounding the missteps that botched Egypt's first attempt to build a democracy. The compressed schedule leaves too little time for negotiation and consensus among Egypt's already polarized political factions, they say, and the rush to elections all but ensures that the process will again become caught up in partisan feuds.
But this time the process is even more opaque and unrepresentative. It is unclear who will select the panel of 10 jurists or the 50 who will review their work on the new charter. Nor is the precise role of those 50 explained. Although normally representatives of the public settle on broad principles for experts to draft into a charter, the new plan calls for the experts to finish their work before the debate can begin, said Zaid al-Ali, an analyst at the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, an intergovernmental group.
During the interim period, the declaration puts almost unchecked power in the hands of the president himself, who can issue legislation, constitutional declarations and ill-defined states of emergency. The declaration includes negligible protections for basic rights, including free speech or assembly.
It grants the military autonomy outside the president's control. It appears to preserve provisions grounding the Constitution in specifically Sunni Islamic law -- said to be the priority of the ultraconservative Islamists who backed the military takeover, although they disputed whether those provisions were adequate. And the declaration vests much of the power to shape Egypt's next permanent charter in the highly conservative judges left in place after decades of authoritarianism.
The young organizers of the recent protests that preceded Mr. Morsi's ouster said they were surprised by the charter and rejected it. The National Salvation Front, the coalition formed by Mr. ElBaradei and others in opposition to Mr. Morsi, said it had not been consulted and demanded unspecified changes.
Al Nour, the ultraconservative Islamist party, said the text broke promises it had received before the takeover, including guarantees about preserving provisions touching Egypt's "identity." In a statement denouncing both the mass shooting and the president's provisional charter, Al Nour accused the interim president of acting "extreme" and "dictatorial." The party complained that the transition plan allowed him "to control all tools for amending the Constitution."
"What, if anything, have the country's new authorities appeared to have learned from the mistakes of the past," Mr. Ali wrote in an analysis. "Not much."
David D. Kirkpatrick reported from Cairo, and Rick Gladstone from New York. Ben Hubbard, Kareem Fahim and Sarah Mousa contributed reporting from Cairo, and Thom Shanker from Washington.
This article originally appeared in The New York Times.