Boston artist and lithographer John Bachelder (1825-94) spent nearly three months in Gettysburg after the battle. He then published this map of the fighting that showed troop positions on all three days.
The final map was endorsed by Gen. George Meade, commander of Union forces at Gettysburg. Meade's note and signature can be seen at the bottom of some copies of the map. According to some accounts, former U.S. General-in-Chief Winfield Scott was so impressed by the map that he introduced Bachelder to President Abraham Lincoln.
According to the New England Civil War Heritage Foundation, Southerners criticized him for omitting the Confederate point of view. But former Confederate Gen. Wade Hampton of South Carolina came to his defense, saying, "It appears that Mr. Bachelder, having the advantage of a military education, and love of history, went to the front early in 1862, more than a year before the battle of Gettysburg, to be in a position to collect data when the most important battle of the War was fought. After working up the details of several engagements, he reached the battlefield of Gettysburg before the dead were buried, remaining for eighty-four days, making plans of the field, visiting the wounded in hospital, and by permission taking the convalescent officers over the field, by whom their positions and movements were pointed out and established."
Editions of the map are still on hand at the Library of Congress, which describes it as a "Colored bird's-eye view showing the topography of the battlefield by the perspective of the drawing, shading and coloring."
After the war, Bachelder became an acknowledged national expert on the battle. He worked with the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association, which was charged with preserving select features of the battlefield. In 1893, he was appointed to a three-man commission responsible for marking and enlarging the battlefield, but he died the next year.
ON THE COVER: THE BACHELDER MAP