DONETSK, Ukraine -- Pro-Moscow insurgents in eastern Ukraine declared independence Monday and sought to join Russia, undermining upcoming presidential elections, strengthening the Kremlin's hand and putting pressure on Kiev to hold talks with the separatists following a referendum on self-rule.
Russia signaled that it has no intention of subsuming eastern Ukraine the way it annexed Crimea in March. Instead, Moscow is pushing to include eastern regions in negotiations on Ukraine's future -- suggesting that Russia prefers a political rather than a military solution to its worst standoff with the West since the Cold War.
Such talks are central to a potential path toward peace outlined Monday by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. The plan laid out by Swiss President Didier Burkhalter calls upon all sides to refrain from violence and urges immediate amnesty, talks on decentralization and the status of the Russian language. That's a key complaint of insurgents who have seized power in eastern regions and clashed with government troops and police. But it's up to the Ukrainian government to take the next step.
Acting Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk pledged to hold a dialogue with Ukraine's east. But he gave no specifics and stopped short of addressing Sunday's referendum in the pro-Moscow regions of Donetsk and Luhansk.
"We would like to launch the broad national dialogue with the east, center, the west and all of Ukraine," Mr. Yatsenyuk told a news conference in Brussels, adding that the agenda for talks should include changes to the constitution that would give more powers to the regions.
Ukraine's central government and the West say the Kremlin has encouraged weeks of unrest in eastern Ukraine in a possible attempt to grab more land. Russia says that's not so, and accuses the West of meddling in a region that Moscow sees as its backyard.
The Ukrainian government's room to maneuver is shrinking. With national presidential elections scheduled for May 25, the Donetsk and Luhansk regions declared independence Monday in the wake of their referendums, and those in Donetsk even asked to join enormous neighbor Russia instead. The sprawling areas along Russia's border, home to about 6.6 million people, form Ukraine's industrial heartland.
"We, the people of the Donetsk People's Republic, based on the results of the May 11, 2014, referendum ... declare that henceforth the Donetsk People's Republic will be deemed a sovereign state," Denis Pushilin, co-chairman of the insurgent government, said to applause Monday. Wearing an ill-fitting suit and reading his speech from a Mac laptop, he continued, "The people of Donetsk have always been part of the Russian world, regardless of ethnic affiliation. For us, the history of Russia is our history."
A day earlier, both regions held a referendum Ukraine's acting president called a "sham" and Western governments said violated international law. White House spokesman Jay Carney said the United States does not recognize the vote results and is focusing on making sure Ukraine's presidential election occurs as planned in 13 days.
But that is starting to look in doubt: Luhansk spokesman Vasily Nikitin said his region will not take part.
The interim government in Kiev had been hoping that the presidential vote would unify the country behind a new, democratically chosen leadership. Ukraine's crisis could grow worse if regions start rejecting the presidential election. Dozens of people have been reported killed since Ukrainian forces began trying to retake some eastern cities.
Organizers said 89 percent of those who cast ballots Sunday in the Donetsk region and about 96 percent of the turnout in Luhansk voted for sovereignty.
While controversial, the vote gave momentum to separatists and bolstered Russia's argument that easterners want more autonomy and deserve more say in running Ukraine.