WASHINGTON -- A long-delayed Senate Intelligence Committee report released Wednesday faulted both the State Department and the intelligence community for not preventing attacks on two outposts in Benghazi, Libya, that killed four Americans, including a U.S. ambassador, about 16 months ago.
The bipartisan report laid out more than a dozen findings regarding the assaults on a diplomatic compound and a CIA annex in the city. It said the State Department failed to increase security at its mission despite warnings, and blamed intelligence agencies for not sharing information about the existence of the CIA outpost with the U.S. military. The committee determined that the U.S. military command in Africa didn't know about the CIA annex, and that the Pentagon didn't have the resources in place to defend the State Department compound in an emergency.
"The attacks were preventable, based on extensive intelligence reporting on the terrorist activity in Libya -- to include prior threats and attacks against Western targets -- and given the known security shortfalls at the U.S. Mission," the panel said in a statement.
The report also noted, chillingly, that the FBI's investigation into the attacks has been hampered in Libya, and that 15 people "supporting the investigation or otherwise helpful to the United States" have since been killed in Benghazi. The report said it was unclear whether those killings were related to the investigation.
The report found no evidence of the kind of political cover-up Republicans have long alleged. Much of it recounted now-familiar facts about deteriorating security conditions in Benghazi in 2012, a year after the fall of longtime dictator Moammar Gadhafi. It filled in new details about the relationship the State Department compound had with the CIA annex about a mile away, and described rising concern among many intelligence specialists about the growing potency of the city's Islamist militants.
"In spite of the deteriorating security situation in Benghazi and ample strategic warnings, the United States government simply did not do enough to prevent these attacks and ensure the safety of those serving in Benghazi," said Intelligence Committee vice chairman Saxby Chambliss, R-Ga.
In response to the report's release, the State Department issued an update of its efforts to improve security at overseas posts and make other changes recommended by an independent oversight panel, the Accountability Review Board, shortly after the attacks. "While risk can never be completely eliminated from our diplomatic and development duties, we must always work to minimize it," the State Department statement said.
The agency said it is refining procedures for assessing risk and evaluating security measures in highly volatile areas, including when to depart from the usual reliance on locally hired security guards. "Hard decisions must be made when it comes to whether the United States should operate in dangerous overseas locations," the statement said.
State Department deputy spokeswoman Marie Harf said the Senate report adds little new information and does not do much to expand to the government's understanding of the attacks. "We should have been better then, and we need to get better going forward," she said.
The report was based on dozens of committee hearings, briefings and interviews -- including with survivors of the attacks -- and on thousands of pages of intelligence and State Department materials collected from September 2012 to December 2013.
The document contains only one mention of former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, named by the panel's Republicans as the official who should ultimately be held responsible for the Benghazi failures. Even so, the report will likely provide fodder for both Republicans and Democrats as Ms. Clinton ponders a possible 2016 presidential run.
The committee described the attacks as opportunistic and said there was no specific advance warning that they were about to be carried out. The report said that on Sept. 18, 2012, the "FBI and CIA reviewed the closed-circuit television video from the mission facility that showed there were no protests prior to the attacks." But it took six more days for intelligence officials to revise their chronology of events and say "there were no demonstrations or protests" at the compound "prior to the attacks."
The report said it was problematic that the CIA and State Department were not working together from the same facility in the dangerous Benghazi environment. That meant the CIA and its well-trained contractors, who had served in elite U.S. forces, were not on location at the outpost in the event of a crisis.
Six armed CIA employees and a linguist responded to the compound attack late on Sept. 11, the report says. About 30 minutes passed before the CIA team arrived on the scene and "exchanged fire with the attackers." They neither asked permission to aid those inside nor were told to stand down.
Detailed accounts provided to the committee describe a harrowing attack and U.S. personnel scrambling to survive the assault. Attackers used "diesel fuel to set the main building ablaze, and thick smoke rapidly filled the entire structure," the report says. According to testimony by the National Counterterrorism Center director, a diplomatic security agent led U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens to an escape window at the compound.
"Nearing unconsciousness himself, the agent opened the emergency escape window and crawled out. He then realized he had become separated from the ambassador ... so he re-entered and searched the building multiple times," the report says. "The DS agent, suffering from severe smoke inhalation, climbed a ladder to the roof, where he radioed the other DS agents for assistance and attempted unsuccessfully to ventilate the building by breaking a skylight."
The committee found that the military response to the attacks was slow and hindered, but not purposely so. "At approximately 1:15 a.m. Benghazi time [Sept. 12], a seven-man reinforcement team of additional U.S. security personnel from Tripoli landed at the Benghazi airport and began to negotiate with the local Libyan militias for transportation and a security convoy," the report says. The team would not depart for the annex for more than three hours.
A separate attack on the CIA annex about 5:15 a.m. Sept. 12 resulted in the deaths of two security officers, who were killed by mortar fire "as they engaged the enemy from the roof of the Annex," the report says.
In the weeks leading up to the attacks, the CIA knew that conditions on the ground were worsening. In August, the agency alerted the intelligence community that there were Islamist training camps and militias in Benghazi. The agency said it was concerned about local militias providing security at U.S. facilities and about the outpost's lack of defense. That month, Benghazi had 20 security incidents.
The report said the Libyan militia charged with protecting the diplomatic compound didn't defend it during the attack.