WASHINGTON -- President Barack Obama's surprise decision last summer to use executive authority to halt deportation of some immigrants who were brought to the country illegally as children won raves from advocates stung by the defeat of similar legislative proposals in Congress.
Since then, the administration has granted more than 400,000 of those young immigrants temporary waivers to live and work in the United States, making Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals one of largest legalization efforts in decades.
The popularity of the program has helped convince leading House Republicans to consider supporting legislation that would offer permanent legal status to the same subset of 1.7 million undocumented immigrants. GOP supporters said such a measure could help break a deadlock on Capitol Hill over comprehensive immigration reform.
But many advocates who once fought for the failed Dream Act, which would have provided the children a chance at citizenship, now say they would no longer be satisfied with legislation that would not include the vast majority of the 11 million immigrants living in the country illegally. Many advocates worry that Republicans will pass a legalization program for children of illegal immigrants, and then use that as an excuse to kill broader reform efforts.
"We will not allow lawmakers to condemn our parents to second-class status," Cristina Jimenez, managing director of United We Dream, said late last month. "Our parents' dreams enabled our dreams, and we owe our success to them and the sacrifices they made."
With Congress on summer recess until next month, the key question when lawmakers return remains how far House Republicans are willing to go to compromise with the Senate, which has approved a comprehensive plan that includes a 13-year path to citizenship for most immigrants.
Advocates have long put a priority on gaining legal status for the children of illegal immigrants, under the reasoning that most did not make the choice to enter the country illegally and have spent most of their lives here.
House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, R-Va., and Judiciary Committee chairman Bob Goodlatte, R-Va., echoed that rationale in announcing that they are developing legislation -- called the Kids Act -- that would offer legal status for the younger immigrants. Both lawmakers voted against the Dream Act.
"These children came here through no fault of their own, and many of them know no other home than the United States," Mr. Goodlatte said recently.
Veteran immigration supporters say that's no longer enough, arguing that the political calculus changed after Mr. Obama was re-elected with overwhelming Latino and Asian support. United We Dream, a youth organization, held a demonstration opposing the Kids Act at the Capitol prior to a House subcommittee hearing on immigration last month.
The Obama administration, too, is rejecting the idea of a Dream Act-style proposal, even as officials tout the president's deferred-deportation program as a qualified success after its first year.
Under the program, applicants must have been brought to the United States before they were 16 and resided in the country continuously since June 2007. Once approved, they are eligible to apply for a Social Security number, federal work permit and, in most states, a driver's license. They are allowed to remain in the country for two years before they must reapply. The vast majority of applicants have been approved, according to statistics provided by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.
Asked whether the administration's program was similar to what Republicans are considering with the Kids Act, White House press secretary Jay Carney said Mr. Obama's executive action was never intended as a substitute for broader changes to immigration laws. "The long-term problem has to be addressed through comprehensive immigration reform," he said. "Everyone on Capitol Hill knows that, including Republicans in the House, who have yet to stake out a position on this."
Mr. Obama authorized the deportation waiver program last summer after being presented with the plan by Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, who was seeking ways to reduce the caseloads on customs and border-control agents, so they could focus on immigrants who have committed multiple crimes.nation